Added 3 January 2005. Last updated 5 September 2008: added details for R. daemeli and R. taipehensis.

Family RANIDAE - Typical Frogs

Genus RANA - "Pond" Frogs

Please note that this is an ongoing page, as Rana is such a large genus that information on the different species tends to be scattered among different species. The full species listing is also not yet complete. Refer to the books in the Bibliography for more detailed care information.

Scientific Name Common Name Distribution Size Notes
R. adenopleura   S China (inc. Hainan), Taiwan    
R. altaica   China (N Xinjiang), Russia (S Siberia)    
R. amamiensis        
R. amurensis   NE China, Kirgizstan, Kazakhstan, Russia (W Siberia east to Sakhalin Island), N Mongolia, Korea    
R. andersonii   China (SW Yunnan)    
R. anlungensis   China (Guizhou)    
R. archotaphus        
R. arfaki        
R. arnoldi *   China (W Yunnan), SE Tibet, N Burma    
R. areolata Crawfish Frog N America ?" No data available.
R. arvalis Moor Frog France through Central Europe to L. Baikal (Siberia): Sweden as far as beyond Arctic Circle 10 cm? The Moor Frog looks very similar to the Common Frog but is in fact one of the rarest frogs of Europe despite its large area of distribution. Its favoured habitats are peat bogs or damp meadows in areas where ponds are fairly abundant, and this dependence on a certain type of habitat caused its decline Hibernation takes place either at the bottom of a pool or on dry land, presumably in similar habitats to young Common Frogs (see above). Diet is also similar to the Common and other frogs. Upon awaking in the cold nights of early spring, moor frogs assemble in small groups in pools and small ponds. In larger bodies of water they will choose an area in the shallowest part of the water and not mix with other groups. As the breeding season commences, males turn blue due to lymph concentrating in the subcutaneous spaces. If it feels threatened while on dry land, a Moor Frog will make a long high jump and then burrow beneath a clump of grass. Moor Frogs can be distinguished from Common Frogs by their narrow snouts, and also by the larger tubercle on the medial aspect of the sole of the hind foot. Moor Frogs also tend to lack the ventral spotting of the Common Frog.
R. asiatica   China (W Xinjiang), S Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan    
R. attigua        
R. aurantiaca Golden Frog India and Sri Lanka 38mm SVL  
R. aurora Red-Legged Frog N America Mexico (NW Baja California) Adult SVL >12cm No data available.
R. a. aurora        
R. a. draytoni Californian Red-Legged Frog N Baja California SVL >12cm This species is suffering from decline within its range [see article in R&AH, 4/2001]. Grismer notes that this is most likely a full species in its own right because of significant differences in both biology and behaviour.
R. bacboensis        
R. balcanica Greek Marsh Frog      
R. banaorum        
R. banjarana        
R. bannanica        
R. baramica        
R. bedriagae Levant Water Frog       
R. bergeri Italian Pool Frog  Italy S of Genoa-Rimini, Sicily, Corsica     
R. berlandieri Rio Grande Leopard Frog Honduras: poss. Mexico (Baja California) ?"  
R. blairi Plains Leopard Frog N America     
R. blanfordii   China, Tibet, India (Darjeeling), Nepal    
R. boulengeri   S & SW China (inc. Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu)    
R. boylii Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog Mexico (Baja California)    Possibly extirpated in Baja California. 
R. brownorum        
R. bwana        
R. caldwelli        
R. camerani        
R. cancrivora *   China (Guangxi and NE Hainan), Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia (Lesser Sundas E to Flores)    
R. c. cancrivora Brackish Water Frog Philippines   Common: found at elevations near sea level.
R. cascadae Cascade Frog N America    
R. catesbiana American Bullfrog Eastern & Central USA: introduced to W USA and extreme N Baja California, and also to Italy, Japan and China (Taiwan and Yunnan) 8" Originally a native of N. America, but introduced into the Carribean and then Europe. It is similar in appearance to its European relatives and also takes small vertebrates as part of its diet. Its common name derives from its call, which is more of a bellow than a croak. Although tadpoles are often available, the adult form is rarely offered: this is possibly because these large toads have a strong jumping ability and without a suitably large tank will crash into the walls of their enclosure at the slightest disturbance. See Bartlett for care details.
R. celebensis        
R. cerigensis Karpathos Water Frog Greece (Karpathos Island in the Aegean)    
R. chalconota Golden Lipped Frog      
R. chaochiaoensis   SW China    
R. chapaensis        
R. charlesdarwini        
R. chensinensis   N China S to Jiangsu and Sichuan, Russia, Korea, E Mongolia    
R. c. chensinensis        
R. c. changbaishanensis   China (Jilin)    
R. c. hongyuanensis   China (Sichuan)    
R. c. kangdingensis   China (Sichuan)    
R. c. lanzhouensis   China (Gansu)    
R. chevronta   China (Sichuan)   Known only from the type locality.
R. chichicuahutla        
R. chiricahuensis Chiricahua Leopard Frog N America     
R. chitwanensis        
R. chloronota        
R. chosenica        
R. clamitans Green Frog N America ?" No data available.
R. conaensis *   Tibet   Known only from the type locality.
R. cordofana        
R. crassiovis        
R. cretensis Cretan Water Frog Crete    
R. cubitalis        
R. curtipes Bicolored Frog India 7½cm SVL  
R. daemeli Wood Frog New Britain, New Guinea, Aru islands, Australia (Cape York Peninsula)  8cm SVL  This is the only ranid frog found in Australia, having colonised Cape York Peninsula from New Guinea [Cogger, 2000]. It is found in seasonally dry monsoon forests and tropical woodlands, usually at night in or besides permanent streams and tropical woodlands. Description: dorsally smooth or shagreened; few scattered low tubercles; dorsolateral skin fold from eye, breaking up posteriorly into row of tubercles; ventrally smooth. Coloration: dorsally a shade of chocolate brown; may have irregular dark flecks and blotches;
R. dalmatina Agile Frog N. Spain, C. & S. Europe through to Turkey, Caucasus and Urals 6-12 cm This frog is more limited in distribution and habitat than the previous two members of the Ranidae, even though it superficially resembles them. The Agile Frog prefers warm climates and places and also almost only inhabits low-lying areas. Favoured habitats are damp shaded spots at the edge of woods (except totally coniferous) or in riverside meadows. It only enters the water during the breeding season, and has limited webbing between its toes. One of its most striking features is its very long and slim hind legs. Thanks to these limbs, the Agile Frog has been recorded leaping up to 2 metres distant and 0.75 metres high. Like the Common Frog, it has a black 'mask' behind each eye, but has fewer spots than either the Common or the Moor Frog. Other distinguishing features are its flattened snout and the closeness of the eardrums to the eyes. Size seems to be climate dependent, with the larger individuals being found in the south of its range. Interestingly the sexes hibernate separately, the males in still water and the females in terrestrial hiding places. Mating takes place in March-April, but again this seems to be climate dependent, as mating in the south may begin as early as February. This is the only time that the males croak, and their call is not very audible. The female lays 600-1,000 eggs in clusters, usually at night. Tadpoles are a light olive brown and at a pre-metamorphosis size of 6cm are one of the biggest in Europe. Metamorphosis takes place in C. Europe in June-August, possibly earlier in the south: the young frogs leave the water soon after. Diet consists mainly of invertebrates (especially spiders), but occasionally small vertebrates may be taken.
R. danieli        
R. daorum        
R. daunchina   China (SW Sichuan)    
R. debussyi        
R. demarchi        
R. diuata* Eastern Mindanao Frog Philippines (NE Mindanao)    
R. dunni        
R. dybowskii        
R. elberti        
R. emilijanovi        
R. epeirotica Epirus Water Frog Greece (W of Pindos mtns, NW Peloponnese, Corfu, Lefkos, Kefallinia and Zakinthos), Albania (prob. only Plain of Saranda)    
R. erythraea Green Pond Frog/ Red-Eared Greenback Frog Philippines (Negros and Panay) SVL 34-75mm  
R. esculenta Edible Frog Europe (exc. Iberia and N. Scandinavia) east to Volga 7½-9 cm One of the so-called "green frogs". The Edible Frog is fairly catholic in its habitats, preferring shallow ponds but also living in small, isolated lakes and pools. However, they never occur above 1,000 metres. Their diet is also very varied and is caught on land or in the water: insects and other invertebrates and small vertebrates. Cannibalism is known in this species. Large specimens may reach 12 cm in size: males are smaller than the females. Despite this hardiness and lack of special preferences, however, the Edible Frog is being displaced in some areas by the Marsh Frog, which is larger. Furthermore the Edible Frog has the unenviable distinction of being the chief provider of "frog's legs" for human populations. Mating takes place in spring: the females lay 5,000-10,000 eggs in clusters of up to 300, all within the space of 1-2 days. Larvae hatch in about 10 days, but development is thereafter temperature dependent: in warm weather metamorphosis takes place in about 3 months, but in some cases the larvae hibernate and complete their metamorphosis the following year. Colouring of the Edible Frog is an overall green, with prominent and variably coloured ridges on their backs and often a yellow-green dorsal stripe. The croaking of a male causes its vocal sac (white or grey in colour) to swell out at both corners of its mouth. There is some debate about the "green frog" complex, with some if not most authorities believing R. esculenta to be a fertile hybrid of interbreeding between R. lessonae and R. ridibunda.
R. everetti Everett's Frog Philippines (not Palawan or Mindoro)    
R. e. everetti Mindanao and Negros    
R. e. alboruberculata Leyte    
R. e. luzonensis Luzon and Polillo    
R. exilispinosa *   China (Fujian, Hunan, Guangdong and Hong Kong)    
R. exiliversabilis        
R. faberi        
R. feae *   China (Yunnan), Burma    
R. fisheri        
R. florensis        
R. forreri Forrer's Grass Frog  Mexico and Central America, poss. to Costa Rica  SVL >12cm  Isolated population in S Baja California. 
R. fragilis *   China (Hainan)    
R. fukienensis        
R. garoensis        
R. garritor        
R. gerbillus   Tibet, NE India, Burma    
R. glandulosa        
R. gracilis        
R. graeca Stream Frog C. & S. Balkans, Italy, S. Switzerland 7½ cm The Stream Frog is mainly a montane species and is rarely encountered at low altitudes. It favours habitats near forest streams in coniferous forests or mixed woodlands. It is closely related to the Common Frog (both in biology and colouring) and can similarly tolerate a wide temperature range. Although the first night frosts usually send the Stream Frog into hibernation, subsequent warm weather will bring it out again. Hibernation takes place in a wide range of places: deep in loose forest soil, under fallen trees or in tree stumps, under boulders or in a hole in the ground. In spring the frogs enter the water only to breed. The females lay their eggs in clusters in areas where the current is slow or absent, such as stream backwaters or forest lakes. For the rest of the year the frogs live on their own, a common characteristic of the Ranidae. Diet is mainly insects and their larvae, various annelids and slugs. Although similar in appearance to the Common Frog, the Stream Frog can be distinguished by its generally smaller size and a dark spot on its throat. The Stream Frog has no subspecies, but individuals from Italy have a shorter body and limbs than those from the Balkans.
R. grafi        
R. grahami   SW China    
R. graminea        
R. grandocula        
R. grisea        
R. grylio Pig Frog SE USA ?" An inhabitant of marshes and swamps, the Pig Frog is widely hunted for its legs (as a food source). The common name derives from the call made by the male.
R. guentheri   S China (inc. Hainan), Taiwan, Vietnam    
R. hainensis        
R. heckscheri River Frog N America ?" No data available.
R. hejiangensis   China (Sichuan)    
R. hispanica        
R. hmongorum        
R. holsti        
R. holtzi        
R. honnorati        
R. hosii        
R. huanrenensis   China (Liaoning)    
R. hubeiensis        
R. humeralis        
R. iberica Iberian Frog Portugal, NW Spain, Andorra 5 cm Found mainly in mountain forests at altitudes higher than 2,000 m.
R. igorota        
R. ishikawae   Japan (Ryu Kyu Archipelago)   Initially described as Buergeria ishikawae by Stejneger. Classification is still not unanimous, as Frost et al (AMNH database) consider this a member of the genus Huia. Description: dorsally very warty, the warts grouped in round clusters of small ones surrounding a central larger; fingers free; 1st finger longer than 2nd; tibia not more than half total length of frog. Coloration: brownish [SOURCE: Stejneger].
R. japonica   S China N to Henan, Japan    
R. jimiensis        
R. jingdongensis        
R. johni        
R. johnsi        
R. jiulongensis*   China (Zhejiang)    
R. juliani        
R. julianensis        
R. kampeni        
R. kreffti        
R. kuangwuensis   China (Sichuan)    
R. kuhlii*   S China (inc. Yunnan), Taiwan, India (Assam) E through Indochina and Indonesia E to Celebes    
R. kukunoris        
R. kunyuensis        
R. kurtmuelleri       Synonym of R. balcanica.
R. latastei Italian Agile Frog Italy 8 cm Distinguishable from other brown frogs mainly by the throat markings.
R. lateralis        
R. laterimaculata        
R. latouchii   S China (inc. Hong Kong), Taiwan    
R. lemosespinali        
R. leporipes        
R. leptoglossa        
R. lessonae Pool Frog C. & E. Europe 8-10 cm? Found in similar habitats to the above: exact status is under debate.
R. levantina *   Egypt (Nile Delta)   2 dorsolateral skin folds.
R. leytensis Leyte Frog Philippines (not Palawan or Mindoro)    
R. liebigii   E India (Himalayas), Nepal, S Tibet    
R. limnocharis Common Pond Frog Philippines   Very common throughout its range.
R. lini        
R. liui*   China (Yunnan)    
R. livida
Cascade Frog SE Asia 5cm/2" An inhabitant of cool, rock-strewn mountain streams. The toepads are well developed. Occasionally seen in the pet trade. Coloration: dorsally green with brown sides.
R. longicrus   China (Fujian), Taiwan    
R. luctuosa        
R. lungshengensis   China (Guangxi, Hunan, Guizhou)    
R. luteiventris Columbia Spotted Frog N America    
R. macrocnemis Long-Legged Wood Frog Caucasus 8 cm Forest dweller.
R. macrodactyla   China (Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan, Guangxi)    
R. macrops        
R. maculata        
R. magna* Philippine Woodland Frog Philippines    
R. m. magna Philippines (Bohol, Mindanao)    
R. m. acanthi Philippines (Palawan, Mindoro, Busuanga, Balabac, Culion)    
R. m. macrocephala Philippines (Luzon)    
R. m. visayana Philippines (Panay, Negros, Leyte, Siquijor)    
R. malabarica Fungoid Frog India 8cm SVL  
R. mangyanum        
R. maosonensis        
R. margaretae   China (Gansu, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei)    
R. margariana        
R. megapoda        
R. megatympanum        
R. melanomenta Sulu Frog Philippines (Papahag Is. in Sulu Islands)   Rare.
R. miadis   ?? ?" ??.
R. microdisca Small Disk Frog Philippines (Mindanao and Palawan)    
R. m. microdisca      
R. m. palawanensis Philippines (Palawan)    
R. m. parva Philippines (Mindanao)    
R. milleti        
R. minima   China (Fujian)    
R. miopus        
R. moellendorffi        
R. moluccana        
R. montezumae        
R. montivaga        
R. morafkai        
R. muscosa Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog N America ?" No data available.
R. narina   Japan (Ryu Kyu Archipelago)    The species described by Stejneger as B. ijimae in the same publication is now considerd to be a synonym of R. narina: see Frost et al, AMHN database. Hence this species description is a composite of both species descriptions. Description: glandular dorsolateral fold absent; dorsally nearly smooth; tips of toes dilated into very small discs that are much smaller than tympanum; tympanum distinct; no free papilla on middle of tongue; toes more than half webbed; vomerine teeth in 2 nearly straight rows between choanae; belly smooth; inner metatarsal tubercle narrow, very slightly prominent, less than half length of inner toe; no outer tubercle; tibiotarsal joint extends considerably beyond snout; tibia more than half the total head-body length; 1st finger longer than 2nd snout long, nostrils near end of snout. Coloration: brownish [SOURCE: Stejneger].
R. nasuta        
R. neovolcanica        
R. nicobariensis        
R. n. nicobariensis Nicobar Frog Philippines (Palawan, Tawitawi, Jolo)    
R. nigrolineata   China (Yunnan)    
R. nigromaculata   China (not Xinjiang or Guangxi), Russia (Far East District), Japan, Korea    
R. nigrotympanica        
R. nigrovittata   China (S Yunnan), India (Assam), Nepal, Vietnam, Malaysia    
R. novaeguineae        
R. oatesii        
R. okaloossae Florida Bog Frog      
R. okinavana        
R. omeimontis        
R. omiltemana        
R. onca Relict Leopard Frog  N America     
R. ornativentris        
R. palmipes        
R. palustris Pickerel Frog      
R. papua Papuan Frog      
R. perezi   Iberia, NW Africa    
R. persimilis        
R. picturata        
R. pipiens Northern Leopard Frog S Canada and N USA 8cm/ 3¼" ?.
R. pirica        
R. plancyi   E China, Taiwan, Korea    
R. p. plancyi   NE & C China    
R. p. fukienensis   China (Fujian and Juangxi), Taiwan    
R. pleuraden   China (Yunnan-Guizhou plateau)    
R. porosa        
R. pretiosa Oregon Spotted Frog N America    
R. psaltes        
R. psilonota        
R. pueblae        
R. pustulosa        
R. pyrenaica        
R. raniceps        
R. ridibunda Marsh Frog N. Africa across S. & C. Europe to W. Asia, China (W Xinjiang) 10-12 cm The largest of the original European Frogs, the Marsh Frog can occasionally reach sizes of up to 17cm. This, together with the variety of its diet which in addition to insects includes small vertebrates such as frogs, tadpoles, lizards and voles, makes it unsurprising that that Marsh Frog is progressively pushing westward and displacing the Edible Frog, both by competition for food and direct predation. Marsh frogs favour warm lowlands with a high incidence of shallow ponds or else large, slow-flowing rivers. Unusually for Ranidae species they often form large communities, up to 2,000 per hectare. The frogs hibernate in the mud at the bottom of the water and only awaken when water temperature reaches 6-9 deg. C. After mating, the females wait until the temperature reaches 15 deg. C before laying large clusters of eggs which sit at the bottom of the pool. The actual number of eggs laid is dependent upon the size of the female but can vary between 4,000-12,000. The tadpoles are light green and pear-shaped: they reach up to 9cm in size, but after metamorphosis (which takes three months in the water) the young frogs are only about 1.5-2.5 cm. Colouring is variable but is usually olive green or mainly brown. Markings are also variable, but the eardrums of the male (which is smaller than the female) are always grey or blackish-brown. The two former subspecies R. r. perezi and R. r. saharica are now recognised as full species.
R. rugosa   NE China, Japan, Korea, Russia (Ussuri)    
R. saharica   Algeria across Egypt to the Caucasus    
R. sakuraii        
R. sanguinea Palawan Wood Frog China (Yunnan, Guangxi, poss. Guangdong and Hainan), Philippines (Palawan, Culion and Busuanga), Indonesia    
R. sangzhiensis   China (Hunan)   Known only from the type locality.
R. schmackeri   C & S China N to Henan and Gansu    
R. scutigera        
R. senchalensis        
R. septentrionalis Mink Frog      
R. sevosa Dusky Gopher Frog      
R. shini   China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan and S Sichuan)    
R. shqiperica        
R. shuchinae   China (W Sichuan and Yunnan)    
R. siberu        
R. sierramadrensis        
R. signata Variable-Backed Frog Philippines    
R. s. grandocular Mindanao, Bohol, Camiguin    
R. s. moellendorffi Culion, Busuanga, Palawan    
R. s. similis Polillo, Luzon, Mindanao, Leyte    
R. spectabilis        
R. sphenocephalus        
R. spinulosa   China (Hainan)    
R. subaquavocalis        
R. subaspera        
R. supragrisea        
R. supranarina        
R. swinhoana   SE China, Taiwan    
R. sylvatica Wood Frog N America inc. Alaska ?" No data available.
R. tagoi        
R. taipehensis   Taiwan    Van Denburgh considered this species to be allied to R. erythraea. Description: vomerine teeth in 2 oblique groups between and extending behind choaenae; interorbital space broder than upper eyelid; tympanum very distinct, two-thirds diameter of eye. Fingers moderately slender, with expanded tips, first not longer than second. Toes slender, moderately webbed, 3 phalanges of 4th toe free; 2 small metatarsal tubercles; tibio-tarsal joint reaches nostril; thighs overlap. Distinct, rather broad, dorsolateral fold, narrower lateral fold. Skin smooth. Coloration: dorsally bluish-grey; upper lip, dorsolateral and lateral folds white; loreal and tympanic regions, area between dorsolateral and lateral folds and stripe above dorsolateral fold blackish; limbs with longitudinal dark stripes; lower surfaces yellowish white. [SOURCE: van Denburgh].
R. tarahumerae Tarahumara Frog  N America     
R. taylori        
R. temporalis        
R. temporaria Common Frog N. & C. Europe, Asia, Japan 10 cm The most common and widely distributed frog in Europe, thanks to its ability to live in seemingly any habitat and any type of water, and even at some distance from it. It can also live at altitudes of up to 4,000 metres. The frogs lead solitary lives most of the year, preying on various invertebrates including molluscs, worms and most arthropods. In winter most hibernate in the mud at the bottom of a body of water, but young frogs will often shelter instead under damp stones or fallen tree trunks. These are the first frogs to emerge from hibernation in spring. Breeding commences in March, even if there is still frost and ice present during the night. The vocal sacs of the males turn blue and their nuptial pads swell during the mating season, but their call is not very loud or distinct and interestingly they only call during the day, when in water, and not at night. The females lay up to 4,000 eggs each in clusters that float in the water. The tadpoles cling to the leaves of aquatic plants once they have hatched: development and metamorphosis take 2-3 months in total, upon which there is a large migration of young frogs from the water. Colouring is variable in this species but there are generally two basic schemes: a brownish back with a black area behind the eye and extending to the forelegs, or a green back without this 'mask'. The underside is usually light but often spotted.
R. t. honnorati   Foot of the Alps    
R. t. parvipalmata   NW Spain    
R. tenggerensis   China (Ningxia)    
R. terentievi        
R. tiannanensis   China (S Yunnan and Hainan)    
R. tientaiensis   China (Zhejiang and Anhui)    
R. tipanan        
R. tlaloci        
R. trankieni        
R. tsushimensis        
R. tytleri        
R. utsunomiyaorum        
R. vaillanti Vaillant's Frog Honduras: ? ?"  
R. varians        
R. versabilis        
R. vibicaria        
R. virgatipes Carpenter Frog N America ?"  
R. volkerjane        
R. warszewitschii Brilliant Forest Frog      
R. weiningensis   China (W Guizhou)    
R. woodworthi* Woodworth's Frog Philippines (Polillo and Luzon)    
R. wuchuanensis   China (Guizhou)   Known only from the type locality.
R. yavapaiensis Lowland Leopard Frog      
R. zhengi        
R. zhenhaiensis        
R. zweifeli        


Keeping and Breeding Amphibians, Chris Mattison, Blandford Press,

The Proper Care of Amphibians, John Coborn, TFH, 1992. Although I have been often critical of Coborn's books in the past - some, notably on lizards, have contained erroneous information - this is not a bad one. It is very useful for an oversight of all the amphibian families and contains some information on many species which are rarely seen in captivity.

Frogs, Toads and Treefrogs, RD and Patricia P Bartlett, Barron's Educational Series, 1996. This is a good book for details on the captive husbandry of the most common anurans you are likely to see offered in the pet trade.

Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna. Volume X, Amphibians and Reptiles, Prof. Angel C Alcala, Natural Resources Management Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines, 1986.

The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians, J C Daniel, Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.

"Diagnoses of eight new batrachians and reptiles from the Riu Kiu Archipelago, Japan", Leonhard Stejneger, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol XIV, December 12 1901. Describes briefly R. narina as a new species, as well as R. ishikawae (listed as a Buergeria species).

"New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa," John van Denburgh, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, Vol III pp 49-56, December 20 1909.


AmphibiaWeb is a useful source for species lists and seems to be the amphibian equivalent of the EMBL Reptile Database. A very worthwhile and important project which also focuses on conservation and the issue of amphibian decline. I acknowledge my debt to this site for filling in the gaps in the different amphibian genera. Any mistakes on these pages are my own!

Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. Version 5.0 (1 February 2007). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

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