Podarcis lizards are found almost entirely within the European region, with a couple of species spilling over into North Africa and one (which may yet turn out to be a different genus, Teira) found on Madeira and the surrounding islands. All are small and quick, and many are handsomely coloured. In some locations in southern Europe they may be found in surprisingly high numbers, especially on stone walls which provide an excellent environment for both heat and light for these sun-loving creatures.
Wall lizards have been kept by herpetological enthusiasts for some years, at least in Europe, and there is a reasonable well amount of data on them. It cannot be said that they have been the most popular lizards in captivity, but many of them are attractive and require less room than their larger brethen, the Lacerta lizards. As such they are also good candidates for naturalistic display terraria. German and Dutch breeders, and some in the UK, have worked with these lizards. Do not expect much in the way of tameness from them, however: as with most small lizards, they tend to be wary and flighty.
Apart from their varied colouring, wall lizards are fairly similar in appearance. All have a body plan similar to that of the Lacerta lizards but have certain anatomical differences: older literature does indeed consider them simply as smaller Lacerta species. Interestingly, as with many geckos, some have adapted quite well to human intrusion and are often seen within the vicinity of human habitation.
Two pictures of Podarcis muralis, June 2006, at Lake Como in Italy. Mr E R Smith who took these pictures reports that these lizards seemed quite numerous and were basking near some steps as he and his wife walked by. The lizards retreated under cover of vegetation when approached, but soon afterwards came back out again.
|P. bocagei, Bocage's Wall Lizard||P. dugesii, Madeira Wall Lizard||P. erhardii Erhard's Wall Lizard|
|P. filfolensis, Maltese Wall Lizard||P. gaigae,Skyros Wall Lizard||P. hispanica,Iberian Wall Lizard|
|P. lilfordi, Lilford's Wall Lizard||P. melisellensis, Dalmatian Wall Lizard||P. milensis,Milos Wall Lizard|
|P. muralis, Common Wall Lizard||P. peloponnesiaca, Peloponnesian Wall Lizard||P. perspicillata, Moroccan Rock Lizard|
|P. pityusensis, Ibiza Wall Lizard||P. raffonei, Aeolian Wall Lizard||P. sicula, Ruins Lizard|
|P.taurica, Balkan Wall Lizard||P. tiliguerta, Tyrrhenian Wall Lizard||P. wagleriana, Sicilian Wall Lizard|
|Scientific Name||Common Name||Distribution||Size||Notes|
|P. bocagei||Bocage's Wall Lizard||NW Spain and N Portugal||7½"||Formerly considered a subspecies of Podarcis muralis (=Lacerta muralis). It is closely related to P. hispanica and often sympatric, but may usually be distinguished from it by its more robust and less flattened build (Arnold et al). The striping in females is less prominent than in those of P. hispanica. The undersides of males in breeding season are a deeper orange than those of P. hispanica or may be yellow or red instead, and in addition also show dark spots around the lower edges of the jaw and lateroventral flanks. However, some males may have instead whitish undersurfaces, Males often have green backs, and even those with brown backs display at least green stripes (Rogner). Two-thirds of the total length of P. bocagei is made up of the tail. P. bocagei may be found from sea level to heights of up to 4,500 ft. It favours stony habitats, fallen tree trunks or sparsely vegetated areas. The lizards are active from March through November, during which time they are diurnally active with their prime time being 4-5 in the afternoon (Rogner). They overwinter in the three month period December to February either singly or in twos or threes in burrows or beneath piles of stones. Males emerge first in the spring: mating takes place in Mar-Apr, with the females laying a clutch of 1-5 eggs in May-June. The young reach sexual maturity in two years. Click here for Pedro Galán's photograph of P. bocagei. B I|
|P. b. berlengensis||Berlenga Island off Cape Carvoeiro, Portugal|
|P. b. bocagei||N Portugal (towards Lisbon); Galicia, Asturias, León, Zamora mtns, N of Burgos and N of Palencia (Spain)|
|P. b. carbonelli||Portugal and Spain (W of the "Central System" (Sierras de Béjar, Peña de Frncia, Gata and Estrella in Portugal))|
|P. dugesii||Madeira Wall Lizard||Madeira, Desertas Islands, Porto Santo Island and Selvagen Islands: introduced in some Azore Islands and Portugal (harbour area of Lisbon)||8½"||A hardy lizard, P. dugesii does well across most of its range and inhabits a wide variety of sites from mountains to coast, being nevertheless more prevalent in lowland areas. Some authorities now place this species in its own genus or subgenus, Teira. Animal Archives have a very good picture. B I|
|P. d. dugesii||Largest of the subspecies.|
|P. d. selvagensis||Smallest of the subspecies: inhabits the Selvagen Islands.|
|P. d. jogeri||Inhabits sandy coastal regions of the island of Porto Santo (Silvestre & Massana).|
|P. d. mauli||Confined to the Desertas Islands but now believed to be extinct (Silvestre & Massana).|
|Erhard's Wall Lizard||S Balkans north to Albania, Macedonia and S Bulgaria, and south to NE Peloponnese: Aegean islands exc. Milos group||8-10"||Smooth scaled, medium-sized Podarcis species with variable coloration. Its range overlaps in the Peloponnese with P. peloponnesica, but on small islands it is usually the only lacertid of this size present. The head of more southerly specimens tends to be smaller, whereas island specimens may be longer. There are many variations in the colour and patterning of this lizard, but it is usually overall brown or grey, occasionally greenish (Arnold et al). Ventral colour can be white, yellow, orange or red: dark spotting may be present on the chin and sides of throat, and there are occasionally large blue spots on the hind legs (Arnold et al). Arnold et al also note that the animals on Skyros resemble P. taurica. Typical habitats are dry places, rocky or stony and often with low vegetation such as brambles. On islands they are often associated with thick areas of Pistacea bushes, but can also occur among sand dunes and in some places inhabit the eyries of the falcon Falco eleonorae. Was thought a few years ago to be closely related to both P. melisellensis and P. milensis. P. erhardii has a huge number of subspecies, although information for these is not readily available: for the complete list click here. B I|
|P. filofensis||Maltese Wall Lizard||Malta, Gozo, Linosa, some Pelagian islands||6"||Similar in shape, size, habitat, behaviour and diet to the Balearic Podarcis species, though colouring is rather different. Like the Balearic lizards P. filofensis is found in gardens, dry meadows and stony roadsides, but equally often on barren rocks projecting out of the sea. It finds shelter in holes and clefts in the rocks. Colouring is variable, but the overall colour is a lightish grey-green with a row of black longitudinal spots from the middle of the back to just beyond the base of the tail. Some individuals apparently lack the spots, while males are more distinctively marked. Diet is fairly catholic, the lizards taking insects, arachnids, molluscs and even young lizards. In turn they are predated by snakes, the weasel, the hedgehog, cats, some birds and the shore crab, and possibly the local skink Chalcides ocellatus and the chameleon Chameleo chameleon (see Lacertilia of the Maltese Islands). The species name is derived from Filfola Rock, one of the lizards' habitats. Savona-Ventura reports that an unnamed colour form also lives on the islands of Gozo and Kemmuna. B I|
|P. f. filofensis||Filfla Wall Lizard||Filfla Island (aka Filfola), S of Malta||Maltese Gremxula ta' Filfla.|
|P. f. generalensis||Fungus Rock Wall Lizard||General/Fungus Rock||Maltese Gremxula tal-blata tal-General.|
|P. f. kieselbachi||St. Paul's Island Wall Lizard||St Paul's Islands off N Malta||Maltese Gremxula ta' San Pawl tal-Gzejjer.|
|P. f. laurentimuelleri||Pelagian Wall Lizard?||Pelagian islands of Linosa and Lampione off Malta||?|
|P. f. maltensis||Maltese Wall Lizard||Malta and the surrounding islands of Gozo, Comino and Manoel||Maltese Gremxula ta' Malta.|
|P. gaigae||Skyros Wall Lizard||Greece (Skyros Archipelago, Northern Sporades, Piperi Island)||?"||Formerly and still sometimes considered a subspecies of P. taurica. Click here for a picture. B I|
|P. g. gaigae|
|P. g. weigandi|
|P. hispanica||Iberian Wall Lizard||Spain (exc. N coastal strip), SW France, N Africa||8"||A very widely distributed wall lizard on the Iberian peninsula, with specimens also found in northern N Africa and the western coast of Mediterranean France.|
|P. h. hispanica||Spain, SW France, N Africa|
|P. h. atrata||Spain (Columbretes Islands)|
|P. h. cebennensis||Spain, SW France, N Africa|
|P. h. vaucheri||N Africa|
|P. lilfordi||Lilford's Wall Lizard||Balearic islands||8" [SVL: m=81, f=75mm: tail: m= 143mm, f=129mm]||P. lilfordi is similar in both size and appearance to P. pityusensis and occupies the same range and similar habitats. If anything it is even more spartan in its requirements, some living on a bare rock standing above the sea. It eats the same diet and combs the same areas as P. pityusensis. Like its congeneric P. pityusensis, P. lilfordi has subspeciated to a high degree within its fairly limited range, with thirteen subspecies recognised, each populating a small area. P. lilfordi is stout with a widened neck and the tail enlarged at the base. It can be distinguished from P. pityuensis by its dorsal scales, which are smooth (those of P. pityusensis are keeled). Scalation details [Salvador]: rostral separated from anterior loreal by a single postnasal. There is a series of scales between supraciliaries and supraoculars. Supratemporals absent or fragmented into small scales. Temporal covered by granular scales. Timpanica and maseterica generally differentiated. 4 sublabials in front of the subocular. 26-43 scales in a line between mandibular symphysis and central scale of the collar. Throat fold present. Collar of 7-16 small scales. Dorsal scales granular, rounded or oveal, flat, 59-91 in centre of body. Ventrals: 6 longitudinal and 26-30 transverse rows. Anal plate bordered by 1-2 semicircles of small scales. Scales on the upper part of the tibia are finally granular, flat and larger than dorsals. On each side there are 16-27 femoral pores and 24-38 lamellae below the 4th toe. Coloration: variable. The usual colouring is a green back with orange and spotted sides, but there is a high degree of melanism, with some individuals being very dark or black. Such lizards have prominent blue spots on their sides and throats. See subspecies listing for details. Click here for a photograph. B I|
|P. melisellensis||Dalmatian Wall Lizard||W. Balkans, Yug. islands||6-7½"||Another very variable species, with 18 geographical subspecies. Predominantly a coastal lizard, living on sun-kissed slopes and cliffs. Many are seen on rocks on the shore, although a few may ascend as high as 1,200 m. Sexual dichromism is strong: males usually have brown spots arranged in longitudinal stripes on a green back, with larger brown spots on their sides, while females either lack the spots or have light longitudinal stripes. The belly of a sexually adult male may change colour from pale to deep yellow or even bright orange. Click here or here for a photograph. B I|
|P. milensis||Milos Wall Lizard||5-6½"||Similar to the above apart from its smaller size. Male Milos Wall Lizards have noticeably dark heads and sides: females are lighter with prominent light stripes. Chooses similar habitats and feeds on small insects. This species was once listed as Podarcis muralis milensis (and prior to that, L. m. milensis), and the subspecies P. m. schweizeri is listed by Hellmich as a full subspecies of P. muralis (=L. muralis schweizeri). B I|
|P. milensis milensis||Cyclades, Milos and islands|
|P. m. adolfjordansi|
|P. m. schweizeri||Eremomilos island|
|P. m. gerakuniae||Gerakunia island|
|P. muralis||Wall Lizard||Most of Europe except GB, Poland and Scandinavia||6-8"||Attractive brown and mottled lizard that needs rocks, stones or walls as part of its environment, being characteristically seen inhabiting ruins, even in towns. It often basks vertically on walls, and if the location can be assured of sun, the Wall Lizard is often seen late in the year (up to the beginning of winter) or before spring, in February. It hibernates in deep chinks in walls or rock crevices. Normally P. muralis is found only at low altitudes, though a few have been encountered at up to 1,000 m. During the summer females lay 2-3 clutches of 2-8 eggs each, which are deposited under stones or in cracks in rocks. The young, about 6cm long, hatch in August. Food consists of invertebrates (normally insects), but cannibalism seems higher among this genus than among other lacertids, despite or perhaps because of wall lizards' tendency to form small communities. There are about twenty subspecies of P. muralis, with variation in colour and form, eg those populations around Rome have brightly coloured males with bright green, black-mottled blacks. In all the subspecies, however, males are differentiated by brick red bellies and blue -spotted sides. Melanisism is also frequent in this species. Both sexes move somewhat jerkily but very nimbly. The nominate subspecies, P. muralis muralis, lives in C. Europe. Wall Lizards have a straight collar, which distinguishes them from Sand and Viviparous Lizards which have collars with serrated edges. B I|
|P. peloponnesiaca||Peloponnese Wall Lizard||Greece (Peloponnese peninsula)||Max TL 10"/25cm; 8½cm SVL||This wall lizard inhabits only the Peloponnese peninsula but is found at all levels , from sea level to high mountain altitudes up to 1,600m. As well as sunny rocks and olive groves they also like buildings, either ruins or inhabited dwellings. Dry areas are preferred. The species can be distinguished from subspecies of P. erhardii found in the same area by the number of superciliary granules found above the eye (10-17 in P. erhardii, 0-7 in P. peloponnesiaca). P. peloponnesiaca is extremely colourful: the males often have turquoise markings on their sides, while the females have golden dorsal stripes running longitudinally. See also separate subspecies entries. Reproduction: females lay two clutches of 1-6 (usually 3-4) eggs that incubate in about 6 weeks. B I|
|P. p. lais||Greece (provinces of Arkadia, Lakonia and Messinia in the NW Peloponnese)||Coloration: vertebral stripe only reaches shoulder: red on underside is weaker or reduced to small spots that are often most prominent on the throat.|
|P. p. peloponnesiaca||Greece (provinces of Achaia and Ilis in the S & C Peloponnese)||Coloration: usually a dark vertebral stripe: males are green on neck and forebody: unmarked specimens also known. Ventrally red or orange.|
|P. p. thais||Greece (provinces of Argolis and Korinthia in the NE Peloponnese)||Coloration: vertebral stripe does not reach shoulder: males have a little green. Ventrally white.|
|P. perspicillata||Moroccan Rock Lizard||N. African mtns (WC Morocco, NW Algeria): Minorca (introduced)||6-7"||Originally only found in N. African mountains but introduced to Minorca in the western region around Ciudadela: may also have been introduced into Almería, although KKS query whether this was a viable population. It avoids arid regions and needs relatively high air humidity, preferring the vicinity of water: among other habitats it may be found in bushes near mountain brooks. Apart from this it is mainly a rock dweller, especially on vertical rock faces and in rocky areas such as quarries, but may also be found on the tops of some trees such as the olive tree. It is an excellent climber and runner on rocks. Hibernation is not obligatory, even in Minorca: there the lizards may be seen on sunny days in winter months. Diet is mainly small insects at which it is very skilful at catching, even in flight: berries and soft fruit may also be consumed, KKS suggesting that the berries may go some way to quenching thirst. They may be found in colonies and mixing with Tarentola mauritanica, Chalcides ocellatus and/or Quedenfeldtia trachyblepharus, depending on location - see KKS for details. Main predator in North Africa is the snake Malpolon monspessulanus. An attractive species, with lighter spots and longitudinal dorsal stripes on a darker green background. Scalation details [KKS]: nostral not in contact with rostral: 3 nasals, of which 2 are posterior to nostril: 5 supralabials in front of subocular: series of granules between supraoculars and superciliaries: collar of 9-11 scales: 54-56 dorsal rows at midbody: ventrals in 10-12 rows. Transparent palpebral disc is unique among lacertids in North Africa. Reproduction: males have longer and wider heads, a thicker cloacal regiona and fewer transverse rows of ventrals (29-32 vs 31-36). In Minorca, pairing takes place early in the new year. 2-4 eggs per clutch are laid in June, the hatchlings emerging in July-August. KKS note that in Oran, North Africa, 2-3 eggs per clutch are laid in June, the hatchlings emerging in August. From their account I am unsure whether the whole hatchling or just the tail are a brilliant turquoise blue, but the latter seems most likely as an anti-predator device. B I|
|P. p. chabanaudi||N. African mtns|
|P. p. pellegrini||N. African mtns|
|P. p. perspicillata||N. African mtns: Minorca|
|P. pityusensis||Ibiza Wall Lizard||Balearic islands, esp. Ibiza, Formentera, and Majorca||8"||Native to Ibiza, Formentera and other Balearic islands, but introduced to Majorca, this is a slim, agile and very hardy lizard that mainly inhabits barren but sun-baked rocks, often by the shore, particularly on the smaller islands. It can also be found combing neglected gardens, rubbish dumps and waste ground for scraps to augment its usual diet of invertebrates (mainly insects) and some plant matter. It has a pointed snout and neck that is as wide or slightly less so than the head. Colouring of these lizards is variable but there seems to be two main types: those from Formentera have green backs with grey-brown sides, while those from Ibiza have a brown back, reddish sides and sharper longitudinal rows of spots. Both types have an underside varying between yellow and orange. A fantastic array of subspecies has been described, many with a very limited range. Scalation details [Salvador]: rostral borders nasal opening. Nasals form a suture behind the rostral, separated from the front labial by the postnasal, which is normally. There is a row of granulars between the supraoculars and superciliaries. The supratemporals are generally fragmented. Temporal is covered by small scales. Maseterica and tympanica are differentiated. 4 supralabials in front of the subocular. 24-39 gular scales in a line between the mandibular symphysis and the central scale of the collar. A gular pleat is present. Collar is made up of 9-14 scales. The dorsal scales are granular, hexagonal or rounded, and keeled. om 50-72 rows. On each side there are 17-30 femoral pores and 22-34 lamellae beneath the 4th toe. The dorsal scales on the tail are very keeled. Ventrals in 6 longitudinal and 26-30 transverse rows. Coloration: see subspecies. B I|
|P. raffonei||Aeolian Wall Lizard||Italy: Liparian Islands (north of Sicily), Strombolicchio Island||?"||A recently described lacertid that was formerly considered to be the Sicilian Wall Lizard subspecies P. wagleriana antoninoi. There is a theory (click here for a translation and picture) that this species originally had a much greater range before being displaced by the introduction of the Common Wall Lizard P. sicula. For information on the protected areas of the range of P. raffonei, click here. B I|
|P. sicula||Italian Wall Lizard||Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Minorca, Ile d'If off Marseilles, W. Balkans and islands, European Turkey inc. islands in Marmora Sea: introduced into SE Spain and W. Philadelphia and Kentucky, USA, and poss. Provence and elsewhere in Europe||8-10"||A fairly common Mediterranean lizard, particularly populous around old buildings and ruins in low-lying flat country, hence its other common name. Like P. muralis, these lizards like the sun. They are also not afraid to approach human habitations, mainly for the insects to be found in the vicinity. In spring males actually fight quite fiercely for mating rights: females lay 4-8 eggs in early summer. Incubation is about six weeks. For a vertebrate P. sicula has a high number of subspecies, at least 40. It is uncertain how the US population arose, but was presumably through human agency. Body colouring is generally two broad green dorsal stripes on a brown mottled background. This is a hardy species that has travelled well and also makes a good vivarium subject. See the subspecies page for more details. B I|
|P. taurica||Balkan Wall Lizard||7-8"||A widely distributed lacertid (and the most common reptile on the Bulgarian coast) with surprisingly only four subspecies. Its habits, diet and hibernation period are similar to those of L. agilis. Part of its success is doubtless due to its non-preference for any one type of habitat: P. taurica can be found in roadside ditches, pastureland and deciduous woods, and on shrubbed hillsides. Those living in woods, however, tend to be the larger ones. Isolated populations between the rivers Danube and Tisa always live on sandy soil, whether river bank, sand tip or even the middle of a swamp, and are smaller and slimmer, generally more like the Wall Lizard. These lizards move among clumps of vegetation in the sand but normally stay close to their burrows, joles usually no deeper than 20". Their males also have bright green backs, whereas those males of the Black Sea populations are generally ordinarily coloured. Balkan Wall Lizards in the Crimea live on the coast or on the mountain steppes. They aestivate in hot summer periods, whereas if the winter is mild they do not hibernate.B I|
|P. t. taurica||Aegean through SE Balkans to Crimea|
|P. t. ionica||Greece, Albania|
|P. t. gaigeae||Aegean islands|
|P. t. thasopulae|
|P. tiliquerta||Tyrrhenian Wall Lizard||Italy (Sardinia and islands), France (Corsica)||10"||P. tiliquerta inhabits the same regions and altitudes as L. bedriagae but is not in competition, since like most P. species it prefers hilly country with dry, sunny rocky areas. Dry hillsides and roadside ditches are also favoured. Females always have light longitudinal stripes on a brown background, whereas males are normally brighter and more colourful, with spots, etc. Both subspecies were once thought to be separate subspecies of P. muralis (P. m. tiliquerta and P. m. toro, formerly L. m. tiliquerta and L. m. toro). B I|
|P. t. tiliquerta||Corsica, Sardinia and islands|
|P. t. contii||SE Corsica (Piana di Cavallo Island)||Originally considered a subspecies of P. muralis by Lanza and Brizzi. They noted that the comparatively young and small (less than a square km) island of Piano di Cavallo had a different coloured substrate to that which P. muralis is normally bound, and that it had therefore exerted a form of natural selection on the race dwelling there, which was light in coloration and had a strongly reduced dorsal pattern. Whether this applies in the light of the reassignment of the subspecies to P. tiliguerta is uncertain. Scalation details: nasals form suture behind rostral; 4-8 (f max 7) supraciliaries; 7-14 (f max 13) supraciliary granules; 1st supraciliary contacts 2nd supraocular; occipital triangular; 4 supralabials in front of subocular; tympanicum and massetericum both large, latter usually in contact with supratemporals or separated from them by 1-2 rows of temporals; 4-9 (f sometimes 3-8) supratemporals; 25-33 gulars; 8-12 (f max 11) collar scales; 56-72 (m) or 54-67 (f) midbody scales. Ventrals in 6 longitudinal and 24-29 (m) or 26-30 (f) transverse rows. For anomalies found in the specimens sampled, see Lanza and Brizzi. Other: 19-27 (f max 25) femoral pores; 27-33 (f 28-33) subdigital lamellae under 4th toe. Coloration: dorsally light brown with hint of olive-green posteriorly, slight trace of dark vertebral stripe along posterior of trunk and tailbase; top of head light hazel-grey finely dotted with black, sides of head and neck same overall with some blackish spots on loreals, supralabials and temporals; rostral, supranasals and anterior supralabials light greenish; body laterally olive-green with occasional scattered black scales and light brown maxillary band extending onto tail base; ventral parts off-white with greenish yellow shade on parts of trunk, hindlimbs and original tail; dorsal side forelimbs, light brown, and hindlimbs, olive green, both with black dots; regenerated tail ventrally light grey; poorly developed axillary spot. Occasional individuals may have bright yellow ventral parts and/or heavily spotted throats.|
|P. t. eiselti|
|P. t. granchii|
|P. t. grandisonae|
|P. t. maresi|
|P. t. ranzii|
|P. t. rudolphisimonii|
|P. t. toro||Toro island (SW of Sardinia)|
|P. wagleriana||Sicilian Wall Lizard||Italy (Sicily and neighbouring islands)||8-10"||Similar to P. sicula but much less variable, with only 2-3 subspecies. Similar size and altitudes, but prefers grassy sunny spots with limited vegetation. P. w. antoninoi is not recognised by the EMBL database. B I|
|P. w. wagleriana||Sicily and Favigna and Levanzo islands|
|P. w. antoninoi||Vulcano island|
|P. w. marettimensis||Marettimo island|
Collins Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians of Britain & Europe, E N Arnold, J A Burton and D W Ovenden, HarperCollins, London 1978. For years this has been an invaluable guide to the English speaker, although a few of the taxonomic details were in need of revision. This was finally accomplished with the revised edition of 2002/4.
Echsen [Lizards] 2, Manfred Rogner, Ulmer, Stuttgart 1994. Does not list all Podarcis species but gives useful details on those selected, including husbandry of captives.
Reptiles and Amphibians of Europe, Walter Hellmich, Blandford Press, London 1962. Taxonomy is rather outdated but useful on details of appearance, habitat and subspecies.
Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas, Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther and Obst, Enke, Leipzig 1986.
Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa, W Kästle, H H Schleich and K Kabisch, Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany 1996. Outstanding review of N African herpetofauna giving detailed account of each species. I gratefully acknowledge their details for the N African species.
Guia de campo de los anfibios y reptiles de la peninsula iberica, islas baleares y canarias [Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic and Canary Islands], Alfredo Salvador, Madrid. ISBN: 84-86238-07-2. Excellent book covering all reptiles and amphibians in the aforementioned areas with a section on each species. The one drawback for English speakers is that the text is Spanish. This book is unfortunately now out of print, but well worth purchasing if you can get a second hand copy.
"Podarcis dugesii: Biology and Conservation of the Madeira Wall Lizard", A Martinez Silvestre & J Soler Massana, Reptilia 13.
"The Lizard of Piana di Cavallo Island (southeastern Corsica): Podarcis muralis contii subsp. nova (Reptilia: Lacertidae)", Benedetto Lanza & Rossana Brizzi, Natura, Milano 68(3-4), 15-XII-1977.
C. Savona-Ventura has an excellent site on Maltese herpetofauna, including Podarcis filofensis.
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