Added 2 March 2004. Last updated 20 September 2015: extensively updated list of genera.

Family Bufonidae

Introduction

The family Bufonidae contains 25 genera and 450 or so species. The following is a list of the genera and their general characteristics and distribution.

Please note that this list is an ongoing work and will probably take some time to complete. Links will be provided from genus names to a list of their species when such information is available.

In the 10 years or so since this page was first uploaded, there has been considerable change in the classification of the family, mainly with the genus Bufo being broken up into several more genera, although Bufo remains moderately large.

NB the latest extensive update (20/9/15) means that the Quick Index will need supplementing.

 

QUICK INDEX

 

Adenomus

Altiphrynoides

Andinophryne

Ansonia , Torrent Toads

Atelophryniscus

Atelopus

Bufo, True Toads

Bufoides

Capensibufo

Crepidophryne

Dendrophrynis

Didynamipus

Frostius

Laurentophryne

Leptophryne

Melanophryniscus

Mertenophryne

Metaphryniscus

Nectophryne

Nectophrynoides

Nimbaphrynoides

Oreophrynella

Osornophryne

Pedostibes, Tree Toads

Pelophryne

Pseudobufo

Ramphophryne

Schismaderma

Spinophrynoides

Stephopaedes

Truebella

Werneria

Wolterstorffina

Genus

Common Name

No. of species

Distribution

Notes

Adenomus

 

3

Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Surinam, French Guiana, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Trinidad, Ecuador, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hispaniola, Virgin Islands

Mainly South America (not Chile), also Caribbean

Altiphrynoides


2

Tanzania, Somalia and Ethiopian

 

Anaxyrus


22

North America

Contains the North American toads formerly assigned to Bufo.

Andinophryne

 

3

Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina

Now reclassified as Rhaebo.

Ansonia

Torrent Toads 

21

India and SE Asia

Parotoid glands absent. 

Atelophryniscus

 

1

Nigeria and Cameroon

 

Atelopus

Harlequin Toads

75

S & C America

This genus, considered almost as desirable by collectors for its coloration as the poison dart frogs, has been hit very hard by the chytrid fungus plague in recent years, with some species disappearing and others being taken into protective confinement.

Bufo

True Toads 

37

Worldwide except for polar regions, although some authorities now appear to define it as mainly if not exclusively an Old World genus.

Parotoid glands present; fingers free, discs absent. Distinctive as a genus but often hard to distinguish from one another at a species level. In the 21st century there have been some changes made to the genus, which formerly included over 200 species: many of these have now been assigned into new genera. There is still some argument over some details.

Bufoides

 

1

Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia

 

Capensibufo

?

2

Tanzania, Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique

 

Chaunus




These and Rhamphophryne species now considered part of Rhinella.

Churamiti


1

Tanzania


Crepidophryne

 

3

Costa Rica & Panama

 

Dendrophryniscus

?

7

N South America

 

Didynamipus

Four-Digit Toad

1

Kenya, Tanzania

Compressed snout, well-developed pectoral shields. 

Duttaphrynus


6-8

Indian subcontinent, China & SE Asia

Made of species formerly assigned to Bufo melanostictus group.

Epidalea

Natterjack Toad

1

Europe

Formerly considered a Bufo species.

Frostius

 

2

Brazil

 

Incilius


33

The Americas

Still considered a subgenus of Bufo by some authorities.

Ingerophrynus


12

China & SE Asia

Mostly former Bufo species.

Laurentophryne

Parker's Tree Toad

1

Tanzania

 

Leptophryne

Indonesian Tree Toads

2

SE Asia

 

Melanophryniscus

?

24-25

South America

 

Mertensophryne

Snouted Frogs 

14

E Africa

 

Metaphryniscus

?

1

Brazil

 

Nannophryne


4

South America

Considered a subgenus of Bufo by some authorities.

Nectophryne

African Tree Toads

2

W Africa

 

Nectophrynoides

 

13

Tanzania

Ovoviviparous.

Nimbaphrynoides

 

2

W Africa

Viviparous.

Oreophrynella

Bush Toads

8

South America 

 

Osornophryne

 

07/11/15

South America 

 

Parapelophryne


1



Pedostibes

Tree Toads 

6

SE Asia 

Parotoid glands present; fingers webbed, discs present.

Pelophryne

Flathead Toads

9

SE Asia 

 

Phrynoidis


2

SE Asia

Considered a subgenus of Bufo by some authorities.

Poyntonophrynus


10

Sub-Saharan Africa


Pseudobufo

 

1

Malaysia, Borneo and Indonesia

 

Pseudepidalea


16

Europe, Africa & Asia


Rhaebo


13

Central and South America

May alternatively be treated as a subgenus of Bufo. Includes former Andinophryne species.

Rhamphophryne

 

10

Central & N South America 

These and Chaunus species now considered part of Rhinella.

Rhinella

Beaked Toads

71-72


Considered a subgenus of Bufo by some authorities.

Sabahphrynus


1

Malaysia

May also be considered an Ansonia species.

Schismaderma

 

1

Africa 

 

Spinophrynoides

Osgood's Ethiopian Toad

1

Ethiopia

Now normally considered an Altiphrynoides species. 

Stephopaedes

 

4

E Africa 

These species are now allocated to Mertensophryne instead.

Truebella

 

2

Peru

 

Vandijkophrynus


5

Southern Africa?


Werneria

Smalltongue Toads

6

Central & West Africa 

 

Wolterstorffina

Wolterstorff Toads

3

Nigeria and Cameroon

 

Bibliography

Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa, W Kästle, H H Schleich and K Kabisch, Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany 1996. Outstanding review of N African herpetofauna giving detailed account of each species.

Keeping and Breeding Amphibians, Chris Mattison, Blandford Press,

The Proper Care of Amphibians, John Coborn, TFH, 1992. Although I have been often critical of Coborn's books in the past - some, notably on lizards, have contained erroneous information - this is not a bad one. It is very useful for an oversight of all the amphibian families and contains some information on many species which are rarely seen in captivity.

Frogs, Toads and Treefrogs, RD and Patricia P Bartlett, Barron's Educational Series, 1996. This is a good book for details on the captive husbandry of the most common anurans you are likely to see offered in the pet trade.

Urania Tierreich: Fische, Lurche, Kriechtiere (various authors, but edited I believe by Professor Kurt Deckert: amphibian contributor was Dr Günther Freytag), Urania-Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. Part of a 6-volume encyclopedia set on the animal kingdom and perhaps comparable to Grzimek's volumes, this volume provides a very useful overview of all the genera and many representative species.

Herpetology of China, Er-mi Zhao and Kraig Adler, SSAR, 1993. Catalogue of practically every reptile and amphibian species found in mainland China, Hongkong, Macao, Tibet and Taiwan. There are few details of the ecology of the animals, but readers are referred to a very comprehensive bibliography, and colour plates are provided for many of the creatures listed.

The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians, J C Daniel, Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press, 2002.

Links

Wikipedia article “True Toad”, retrieved 20 September 2015.

Animal Diversity Web, “Bufonidae”, retrieved 20 September 2015.

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